- The Growing up with two languages Facebook page
- The University of Canterbury Intergenerational Transmission of Minority Languages (ITML) project page
- The University of Canterbury Learning and Teaching Languages research page
Links to help with planning your bilingual family:
- Ministry of Education resources for bilingual Pasifika living in New Zealand
- A step-by-step guide to planning your language journey
- An example of how easily several languages can be learnt in societies where this is the norm
- 7 dos and don’ts for raising a bilingual child
- An article about the time commitment required to raise children bilingually
- 12 things parents raising bilingual children need to know
- Raising bilingual children: the first five steps to success
Links to help you create your own language practices:
- Raising a bilingual child is easier than you think
- 10 tips to successfully raise a bilingual child
- Blog written by Sarah – an American non-native French speaker raising her children in French
- Two parents, two languages – 2P2L, twice the benefits of OPOL?
Links about bonding in your own language:
- Family-wide benefits of speaking a minority language at home
- When grandparents have no common language with grandchildren
- 3 ways to boost language ability and loving bond with grandparents
- Losing language: the subtle epidemic
- Choosing the ‘right’ language for your child
- Mother tongue: The language of heart and mind
Links about fitting in:
- The thing I want my kids to know about fitting in – one mother’s thoughts about her own and her kids’ bilingual upbringings
- Why not fitting in can actually be good for you – article about celebrating your bilingual uniqueness
Links about looking back on a bilingual upbringing:
Links discussing the advantages of bilingualism:
- What speaking two languages does to the brain
- Read this before you call the speech and language therapist!
- Bilingual Options – a site run by Dr Susan Dopke, speech pathologist and consultant in bilingualism
- A second language gives toddlers an edge – 2011 article published in Science Daily
- Bilingual adults have sharper brains – summary of a recent study
- The benefits of multilinguism – article by Micheał Paradowski, Institute of Applied Linguistics, University of Warsaw
- Know more than one language? Don’t give it up! – article by Associate Professor Bilingual/Bicultural Education at the University of Texas at Austin
- Flores, A., and Soto, R. (2010). Bilingual is better: Two Latina moms on how the bilingual parenting revolution is changing the face of America. United States of America: Bilingual Readers
- Why bilinguals are smarter – opinion piece from The New York Times Sunday Review
- Bilingualism delays the onset of Alzheimers symptoms – 2010 article published in Science Daily
Links discussing myths about bilingualism:
- Myths about bilingualism – written by François Grosjean, Professor Emeritus of the Université de Neuchâtel and founder of the academic journal ‘Bilingualism: Language and Cognition’.
- Common myths about bilingualism – written by the University of Hawai’i Centre for Second Language Research.
- Myths about bilingualism – written by Shirley Maihi, Principal of Finlayson Park School and creator of the Bilingual Education New Zealand website.
- Raising bilingual children: Fact or fiction? written by Christina Bosemark, founder of the Multilingual Children’s Association.
- Debunking common myths about raising bilingual children – easy to read article from Australian publication ‘The Conversation’
- TEDx Talk on reducing monolingualism in the United States (with some interesting points applicable in New Zealand) by Kim Potowski, Associate Professor of Linguistics at the University of Illinois
- The politics of bilingualism – the story of a boy suspended for speaking Spanish at school
- Bilingual kids in the classroom a treasure – opinion article from the NZ Herald
Multilingualism and development, disorders, and interventions:
- Texts on raising and working with bilingual children – written by Dr Susan Dopke, speech pathologist and consultant in bilingualism
- Does foreign language learning promote child development? A positive look at some common misconceptions of bilingualism
- “If a multilingual child does have a disorder, switching to monolingualism will simply create a monolingual child with a disorder. It will not address the disorder itself.” Article about recommending monolingualism for children with speech disorders, written by Madalena Cruz-Ferreira, University of Manchester: multilingual parent, educator and scholar
- Recommending monolingualism to multilinguals: why and why not – written by Madalena Cruz-Ferreira, University of Manchester: multilingual parent, educator and scholar
- What to do when a bilingual child has been diagnosed with a language disorder – written by Professor François Grosjean
Links about the importance of rich speech:
- Why talking to little kids matters – TEDx video by Anne Fernald, a leading researcher on infant-directed speech
- Why should parents talk to their children in their native language? – article by Ana Paula Mumy, speech-language pathologist and multilingual mother
- How quality helps babies’ language development grow
- Quality is crucial to language skills – summary of recent research findings
- Quantity and quality of language input – academic essay-style literature review on bilingual language inout
- Talking to promote your child’s language skills – written by Meredith Rowe, Associate Professor at the Harvard School of Graduate Education
- New research on early disparities – an easy-to-read summary of recent findings
Suggestions, ideas, and other resources to help with motivation:
- How a globe-trotting alligator helped one family on their bilingual journey – an article about how to create a blog to encourage your kids to read in the minority language
- Bilingual style – a page selling merchandise that may appeal to bilingual kids and their families
- ‘Bilingual Zoo’ discussion forum – an active discussion forum where you can post questions, comments, concerns, or browse to get ideas, resources, and strategies
- Multilingual Living Magazine – a page directing you to issues and articles of this informative magazine
- The Cambridge Bilingualism Network – link to a summary of helpful online resources including reports, articles, and initiatives (this website is UK-based but some information is helpful and applicable in NZ)
- Teaching French at home – link to the resource page on blog written by Sarah (a non-native French-speaking mother raising her children in French)
- 10 unconventional ways to raise bilingual kids
- How I get my bilingual son to talk his head off in the minority language
- The Bilingual Family Newsletter – archives of this informative newsletter, which ceased publication in 2010, after 27 years
Helpful links for predicting and coping with critical moments:
- 5 challenges I face raising bilingual kids
- Simple tips for when your child enters the bilingual rebellion stage
- Coping with the bilingual rebellion
- How to win the bilingual rebellion stage
- Raising bilingual kids is worth the effort
- Tips for if you think your child is losing their ability in the minority language
- Travel to boost your child’s minority language – description of benefits of travel, plus additional links
- Four reasons your child answers in the ‘wrong’ language
- Some languages are lost after emigration while some are maintained – Why? Article by Jacomine Nortier, Associate Professor in multilingualism and sociolinguistics at the Utrecht Institute of Linguistics, The Netherlands.
Other resources for further reading:
Baker, C. (2007). A parents’ and teachers’ guide to bilingualism. (3rd ed.). Clevedon, Buffalo, and Toronto: Multilingual Matters.
Baker, C., & Hornberger, N. (2001). The influence of bilingualism on cognitive growth: A synthesis of research findings and explanatory hypotheses. In An introductory reader to the writings of Jim Cummins (pp. 26-55). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Barron-Hauwaert, S. (2004). Language strategies for bilingual families: The one-parent – one-language approach. Clevedon, Buffalo, and Toronto: Multilingual Matters.
Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I., & Luk, G. (2012). Bilingualism: Consequences for mind and brain. Trends in Cogn Sci., 16(4), 240-250.
Bjork and Kroll, 2015). Desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning. American Journal of Psychology, 128(2), 241–252.
Bjork & Kroll. (2015). Desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning. American Journal of Psychology, 128(2), 241–252.
Craik, F., Bialystok, E., & Freedman, M. (2010). Delaying the onset of Alzheimer disease: Bilingualism as a form of cognitive reserve. Neurology, 75(9 November 2010), 1726-1729.
Cunningham, U. (2011).Growing up with two languages. (3rd ed.). London and New York: Routledge.
De Houwer, A. (1999). Two or more languages in early childhood: Some general points and practical recommendations. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Flores, A., and Soto, R. (2010). Bilingual is better: Two Latina moms on how the bilingual parenting revolution is changing the face of America. United States of America: Bilingual Readers
Hakuta, K., & Diaz, R. (1985). The relationship between degree of bilingualism and cognitive ability: A critical discussion and some new longitudinal data. In K. Nelson (ed.), Children’s language (Vol. 5, pp. 319-344). Hillside, NJ: L. Erlbaum.
Hammer, C. S., Davison, M. D., Lawrence, F. R., & Miccio, A. W. (2009). The Effect of Maternal Language on Bilingual Children’s Vocabulary and Emergent Literacy Development During Head Start and Kindergarten. Scientific Studies of Reading : The Official Journal of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading,13(2), 99–121.
Kaiser, A., Eppenberger, L., Smieskova, R., Borgwardt, S., Kuenzli, E., Radue, E.-W., . . . Bendfeldt, K. (2015). Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(6).
King, K. and Fogle, L. (2006). Raising bilingual children: Common parental concerns and current research. CAL Digest.
Kovács, Á., & Mehler, J. (2009). Cognitive gains in 7-month-old bilingual infants. PNAS, 106(16), 6556-6560.
Krizman, J., Slater, J., Skoe, E., Marian, V., & Kraus, N. (2015). Neural processing of speech in children is influenced by extent of bilingual experience. Neuroscience letters, 585(12 January 2015), 48-53.
Li Wei. (2000). The bilingualism reader. Londond and New York: Routledge.
Luk, G., Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., & Grady, C. L. (2011). Lifelong Bilingualism Maintains White Matter Integrity in Older Adults. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(46), 16808–16813.
Mohades, S., Van Schuerbeek, P., Rosseel, Y., Van De Craen, P., Luypaert, R., & Baeken, C. (2015). White-matter development is different in bilingual and monolingual children: A longitudinal DTI study. PLoS ONE, 10(2).
Navarro, A. (1998). Phonetic effects of the ambient language in early speech: Comparisons of monolingual and bilingual learning children. Miami: University of Miami.
Peal, E., & Lambert, W. (1962). The relation of bilingualism to intelligence. Psychological Monographs 76, 546.
Petitto, L. and Holowka, S. (2002). Evaluating attributions of delay and confusion in young bilinguals: Special insights from infants acquiring a signed and spoken language. Sign Language Studies, 3(1), 4-33.
Rowe, M. (2012). A longitudinal investigation of the role of quantity an quality of child-directed speech in vocabulary development. Child development, 83(5), 1762-1774.
Smith, F. (1990). To think. Teachers College Press.
Steiner, N., & Hayes, S. (2009).7 steps to raising a bilingual child. New York: AMACOM.
TEDx talk on the ‘monolingual mindset’ and how to better incorporate minority languages in teaching and learning. By Felicity Meakins, research fellow at the University of Queensland and field linguist specialising in Australian Indigenous languages.
Unsworth, S. (2015). Quantity and quality of language input in bilingual language development. In Nicoladis, E., & Montanari, S. (eds.) Lifespan perspectives on bilingualism. (pp. 136-196). Mouton de Gruyter/APA.
Valdes, G., & Figueroa, R. (1994). Bilingualism and testing: A special case of bias. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Zurer Pearson, B. (2008). A step-by-step guide for parents: Raising a bilingual child. United States: Living Language.3